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Data between Financial Accounting and Cash Accounting

SAP Tutorial - Sat, 2010-11-20 16:54

The data source for cash accounting is the posting material in financial accounting. In financial accounting, cash accounts, balance sheet accounts, and profit and loss accounts (P&L accounts) are interrelated.

This account-based integration (Accounting and consequently ERP systems are structured according to the principle of double-entry accounting.

A triple-entry accounting system has not been implemented yet) enables you to determine the cash flow required in cash accounting.


In addition, business transactions related to accounting can be classified as affecting net income and not affecting net income, and as having an effect on liquidity and having no effect on liquidity.

The payment of a dividend, for instance, is a transaction that affects the net income and the liquidity; therefore, it is relevant for both cash accounting and the profit and loss statement.

The depreciation of an asset merely affects the net income, but not the liquidity. This distinction makes it easier to determine the source of funds and their application.


The following are 14 different account assignment types available to post business transactions in accounting. For each account assignment type, we have provided an example:

    1. Cash payment for office equipment

    2. Revenue from cash sales

    3. Depreciation of tangible assets

    4. Posting of supplier invoice

    5. Invoicing of an activity

    6. Dissolving of provisions

    7. Revenues from invoices

    8. Borrowing

    9. Payment of supplier invoices

    10. Cash payment for material purchases

    11. Accounting exchange on the assets side

    12. Contribution in kind from shareholders

    13. Clearing of receivables and payables

    14. Accounting exchange on the liabilities side


It is apparent that the connection between two account assignment types demonstrates the source or application of funds. This is because the central task of cash accounting is the “What for” search: “What have funds been received or paid for?

The Concept of Cash Accounting

SAP Tutorial - Mon, 2010-11-15 17:47

In business literature, you’ll find countless discussions about the concept of cash accounting and its definition. In these discussions, you’ll also encounter the following terms: cash budget management, flow-of-funds analysis, and cash flow statement, as well as cash flow accounting.

Cash accounting records the changes of cash flows, cash flows being incoming and outgoing payments of liquid funds such as cash in hand and bank savings.

In accordance with national and international accounting standards such as FASB and IAS, we will use the term “cash flow” in this book to describe the changes in the means of payment. Liquidity is referred to as a financial accounting-related concept.

Within a certain period, cash accounting records transactions that have a direct influence on the stock of liquid funds, regardless of the period the payments refer to.

This type of recording and displaying of cash flows can be compared to fiscal accounting, which is used in the public sector. Therefore, cash accounting distinguishes itself from accrual accounting and cost accounting.


In addition, it is now apparent that in business theory, cash accounting always refers to several periods. This concept is generally adopted by SAP Liquidity Planner.

Because the SAP Liquidity Planner component consists of two applications, the first application, Cash Accounting, refers to past and current periods, while the other application, SAP Liquidity Planning (SAP BW/SEM), considers future periods.

Steps Involved in Document Splitting

SAP Tutorial - Sun, 2010-11-14 16:40

The SAP system always processes document splitting in the following sequence. Simplified, the document splitting process can be divided into three steps:

1. Passive split:

During clearing (during a payment, for example), the account assignments of the items to clear are inherited to clearing line items such as payable line items. This step can not be customized.

2. Active (rule-based) split:

The SAP system split documents on the basis of document splitting rules. Document splitting rules can be configured.

3. Clearing lines / zero balance formation by balancing char. (and document):

The SAP system creates clearing lines automatically to achieve a split. This process can be controlled with the “zero balance indicator”


In situations involving clearing, the passive split not only ensures that the account itself is balanced, but also the additional dimensions.

Clearing lines are always formed when values have to be reposted between account assignment objects.

For example: Transfer posting from profit center A to profit center B. The clearing lines ensure that not only the document itself is balanced internally, but also the additional dimensions (→ such as business area, segment, or profit center).

Between steps two and step three, document splitting is supported by two things: inheritance and default account assignment.

Dummy Profit Center Creation in SAP

SAP Tutorial - Thu, 2010-11-11 15:54

To create the dummy profit center for the controlling area in SAP.

The dummy profit center is updated in data transfers whenever the object to which the data was originally posted (cost center, order, and so on) is not assigned to a profit center.

This ensures that the data in Profit Center Accounting is complete. The data can be sent later on the dummy profit center to the other profit centers using assessment or distribution.


The dummy profit center’s master record is created using this special transaction ( KE59 ). Normal SAP transaction to create normal profit center is KE01 transaction. To change or display it, use the normal profit center maintenance functions ( KE52KE53 transaction ).

The name of the dummy profit center is displayed in the controlling area settings for Profit Center Accounting.


Before dummy profit center can be created in SAP system, the standard hierarchy must exist for the current controlling area ( KCH4 transaction ).

The standard hierarchy is a tree structure for organizing all the profit centers belonging to a controlling area. In the standard hierarchy, there are two types of node as structure elements:

• Profit centers can be assigned directly to an end node.

• Summarization nodes do not themselves contain profit centers. Instead, they summarize other nodes (end nodes or summarization nodes).


Dummy Profit Center Creation

Enter the name of the dummy profit center. The rest of the steps are the same as when you create a normal profit center.

Choose the function Extras → Set controlling area first to make sure that the correct controlling area is set.


Controlling Area Settings

In the following steps, the basic settings required can be made to run Profit Center Accounting according to your requirements.

Under Maintain Controlling Area Settings

    • Assign certain master data to the controlling area

    • Make the settings for the distribution scenario (ALE)

    • Make the settings for elimination of internal business volume

    • Determine which currencies and, where required, which valuation views you wish to use

    • You make settings which control postings of transaction data in the actual and plan systems under Activate Update.


All of the basic controlling area settings can be checked under Analyze Settings (1KE1)

Profit Center Accounting → Basic Settings → Controlling Area Settings → Analyze Settings

and be changed in certain cases using the function Update Basic Settings.

Profit Center Accounting → Basic Settings → Controlling Area Settings → Update Basic Settings

Use of the Entity Segment in SAP New GL

SAP Tutorial - Wed, 2010-11-10 17:53

The segment field is one of the standard account assignment objects available in mySAP ERP for running analyses for “objects” below the company code level.

The segment field (SEGMENT) appears in the standard version of the totals table in New General Ledger Accounting (FAGLFLEXT) in mySAP ERP.

The following are the alternative account assignments used in the past (previous SAP software version):

• Profit Center

• Business Area

• Profitability segment

The segments can be used to meet the requirements of international accounting principles ( IAS / IFRS / U.S. GAAP) regarding “segment reporting“.

The segment is provided in addition because the business area and/or profit center were frequently used for other purposes in the past and thereby to meet other requirements.


The SAP ERP system enables to assign a segment in the profit center’s master data under basic data segment (KE51 – KE53 transaction). All postings are automatically made to the segment when the profit center is posted to. However, there is no “dummy segment posting“, as in the profit center logic (dummy profit center).

If the profit center does not have a segment, there is no segment account assignment either.

The default setting involves deriving the segment from the profit center, but users can develop their own derivation solutions through a user exit (BAdIFAGL_DERIVE_SEGMENT).

Valuation of Open Item Accounts

SAP Tutorial - Sun, 2010-11-07 11:56

All SAP documents that are open items in foreign currency are valuated as part of the foreign currency valuation:

• The individual open items of an account in foreign currency form the basis of the valuation, that is, every open item of an account in foreign currency is valuated individually.

• The total difference from all the open items in an account is posted to a financial statement adjustment account. The account therefore retains its original balance.

• The exchange rate profit or loss from the valuation is posted to a separate expense or revenue account for exchange rate differences as an offsetting posting.

To valuate foreign currency balances, certain accounts must be defined. These accounts is defined per reconciliation account in SAP system:

    • Expense and revenue accounts for the exchange rate differences from the valuation

    • A financial statement adjustment account, reported in one financial statement item with the valuated account. The valuation is therefore not performed in the account itself, instead, it is posted to a separate account. This is necessary for example, since the accounts for receivables and payables are only updated by postings to the customer and vendor accounts. However, the valuation must be performed in the G/L account area for the relevant reconciliation accounts.

The required accounts are defined in the Implementation Guide ( IMG ) under :

Financial Accounting (New) → General Ledger Accounting (New) → Periodic Processing → Valuate → Foreign Currency Valuation → Prepare Automatic Postings for Foreign Currency Valuation.


The following options are used for valuating open items in foreign currency:

• Saving the exchange rate difference per valuation area

In addition to the posting in SAP system, the exchange rate differences are saved per document. This information is available for subsequent evaluations, for example, Transferring and Sorting Receivables and Payables

Unrealized exchange rate differences

When you valuate open items in foreign currency, the exchange rate difference determined is posted as an unrealized exchange rate difference.

Realized exchange rate differences

For an incoming payment, that is, when you are clearing the open items, the current exchange rate is determined. Since the exchange differences that were not realized are reversed, the full exchange rate difference is posted as realized.

• Resetting postings for exchange rate differences

The valuations can be reset. By doing so, you recreate the status before the valuation run, that is, all valuations posted are set to zero by an inverse posting. To reset the valuations, enter the same selection criteria for the valuation run to be reset and set the Reset Valuations indicator.

Change Message ID in SAP

SAP Tutorial - Sun, 2010-11-07 05:58

How to change the customization of field ‘Message ID’

To change this field or “Message class” in transaction GGB0 → Financial Accounting → Line Item → Validation → Step… → Message.

In case there does not exist any validation, and you attempt to create a new validation, the SAP system will pop-up another window and you need to input the ‘Message class‘ that will be used for all other validations for a particulat call-up point.

However, if the message ID already exists for a call-up point, you may maintain the entry in GB02C table and modify the message ID for boolean class 009 (in case of line item validation)

Purchase to Pay SAP

SAP Tutorial - Sat, 2010-11-06 17:16

The following are the basic of the purchase to pay sap flow:

Determination of Requirements

In this step, there is a requirement of material or service, which must be procured externally, from the user. The requirement must be recorded as Purchase Requisition (PR) document in SAP MM.

Purchase Requisition (PR) is an internal purchasing document in SAP ERP that is used to give notification to responsible department about the requirement of material/service and to keep track of such requirement.


Determination of the Source of supply

After the purchase requisition ( PR ) has been created in the previous step, the responsible department must process it. The buyer of the procurement department must determine the possible sources of supply of the material/service specified in the PR.


Vendor Selection

If in the previous step, there are some outline agreements or info record documents that can be used as references to create a PO, the buyer can select or choose which vendor that will be appointed to provide the material/service at this time.


PO Processing

In the previous step, the buyer has selected the vendor which will provide the material/service needed in PR. In this step, the buyer creates a Purchase Order (PO) based on the PR and the reference document (that can be an outline agreement, an info record, or a quotation).


PO Monitoring

After the PO has been sent to the vendor, the buyer has the responsibility to monitor whether the vendor delivers the material/service at the right time on the right place.


Goods Receipt

When the vendor delivers the material or perform the service, the responsible person of the company must perform the goods receipt (GR) or service acceptance (SA) transaction. The GR/SA will update the PO history.


Invoice Verification

After the vendor delivered the material/service, it will send the invoice to the person responsible in the company.

Invoice is a formal document issued by a vendor to the company to request the payment for the material or service that the vendor has already provide to the company according to the terms of payment agreed in the PO.


Payment Processing

After the Invoice Receipt (IR) transaction has been posted, the vendor’s account payable will increase and the company must process the payment to that vendor as stated in the terms of payment of the PO.

The payment transaction will be performed in SAP FI module. After the payment has been posted, the vendor’s account payable will be debited and the cash or bank account will be credited.

Resource: ezsap.com

Entry View and General Ledger View in New GL

SAP Tutorial - Fri, 2010-11-05 17:22

When New General Ledger Accounting is active, a Financial Accounting document in SAP system (SAP FI documents) always has two views:

• The entry view and

• The general ledger view

Besides the leading ledger, you may also see the document in other, non-leading ledgers in the general ledger view.


Definition of Entry View and General Ledger View

Entry View:

View of how a document also appears in the subledger views / subledgers (AP, AR, AA, taxes).

General Ledger View:

View of how a document appears ( only ) in the general ledger.

How to define the Business Place in SAP ECC 6

SAP Tutorial - Tue, 2010-11-02 18:05

The business place is used in countries that by law require returns for taxes on sales/purchases to be submitted at a level below the company code. For this reason, companies have to register each business place with the tax authorities as the unit responsible for tax reporting.

The business place can also be used for the payment program, whereby you can make separate payments per business place, and separate house banks can be filtered per business place.

This SAP function is currently available for Brazil, South Korea, and Thailand.


How to define the Business Place in SAP ECC 6

IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on SALES/Purchase → Basic Settings → South Korea → Business Places → Define Business places


For each business place, you enter the tax numbers that the tax authorities have issued to the organizational unit responsible for reporting taxes on sales/purchases. Additionally, you maintain all address data.

By making these settings, you establish the business place in the SAP system as the entity registered with the authorities that is responsible for issuing tax invoices and for tax reporting.

The exact information you enter when defining the business place depends on the country with which you are working.

SAP Business Objects (SAP BO)

SAP Tutorial - Sun, 2010-10-31 15:54

The cost-effective mailing and database-management software solution offers complete database management, combining address correction and standardization, merge/purge processing, presorting, custom-printing options, and other valuable features in one easy-to-use software solution.

The updated software and directories can be downloaded from the SAP Service Marketplace. The following instructions is how to download software or directories.

Downloading software from SAP Service Marketplace (SMP)

To download software from the Service Marketplace:

  1. Go to https://service.sap.com/bosap-support.
  2. Sign in with your S-User ID and password.
  3. In the Download Software & Directories section, click Support packages: service packs, fix packs, merge modules.
  4. Select your product three times (on three successive pages).
  5. Select your operating system (Win32).
  6. Scroll down to the Download section and select the product(s) to add to your download basket.
  7. Follow the instructions on screen to download your software


Downloading directories from SAP Service Marketplace (SMP)

To download directories from the Service Marketplace:

  1. Go to https://service.sap.com/bosap-support.
  2. Sign in with your S-User ID and password.
  3. In the Download Software & Directories section, click Address directories for Data Quality / Postalsoft. Available directories are listed, with the exception of eLOT, which will be presented after you select the Diversified directories (see step 6).
  4. Click the item that you want to download (for example, SBOP ADDR DIR US – DIVERSIFIED), and click it again.
  5. Click Installation. Make sure that you download all corresponding files for the same month and that you download the .exe files, not the .tgz files.
  6. For each file that you want to download, click its checkbox so that a checkmark appears, and then click Add to Download Basket.
  7. If you haven’t already installed Download Manager, click Get Download Manager to install it now. Download Manager is a Java-based utility that allows you to download multiple products and schedule downloads for a later time. When you click Get Download Manager, further instructions are available to follow.
  8. To add more directories, click Address Directories near the top of the page, and repeat steps 4-6 for each remaining directory.
  9. Open Download Manager on your computer and use it to complete the download.


The software’s address standardization engine (ACE) is CASS-certified, which means that it meets USPS regulations for applying correct postal codes and standardizing addresses, cities, and states. This gives you maximum postage discounts and fast, accurate delivery of your mail.

Additional options of cost-effective mailing and database-management software solution are available to increase productivity, revenue, and cost savings.

Creation of material master data in SAP

SAP Tutorial - Sun, 2010-10-31 12:54

Creation of material master data in SAP

All the information your company needs to manage a material is stored in a data record in the material master, sorted by various different criteria. Each department has its own view of the material master record and is responsible for its data being correct.

Basically, material master record will be created in the following cases:

• If no material master record exists for a particular material. In this case, you create the material master record.

• If a material master record exists for a particular material, but the master data for your user department is missing. In this case, you extend the material master record.

• If a material master record exists for a particular material and the master data for your user department has been entered, but not at the appropriate organizational level (for example, if it has been entered for a different plant). In this case, you extend the material master record.


A material master record can be created or extended in SAP system in one of the following ways:

  1. Immediately
  2. By scheduling it


Before creation of material master data in SAP (not extend) , check that one does not already exist for this material. You can check this using the search help or by calling up the materials list.

Check whether a material master record exists for a similar material that you can use as a reference; that is, whose data you can copy as default values.


At most companies, material master records are created in one of the following ways:


A central body enters a minimum amount of all user department data. Users in the individual departments add to this data in Change mode. For the central body to create data for all departments, it must be authorized to process all user department data.


Each department creates its own material master records. Users are authorized to process data for one or more departments as required.

Tax Invoice Printing Function

SAP Tutorial - Thu, 2010-10-28 16:27

The business documents will be entered to SAP system for customers in the usual components (Accounts Receivable (FI-AR), Sales and Distribution (SD), and in Cash Journal). If a business document serves as a tax invoice, the SAP system automatically generates a tax invoice number and enters it in the accounting document header.

Customer tax invoices can be print out in Financial Accounting (FI) using the generic correspondence functions.

And in Sales and Distribution (SD) , you can print out the business documents from the billing documents using the generic output functions. But you cannot print out tax invoices that you have created in the General Ledger (FI-GL).

Once an accounting document have been entered in the SAP system, you can print out the appropriate business document in the approved format using the generic correspondence functions. For example, when you enter a customer invoice, you can print a combined invoice/tax invoice from it.


Tax Invoice Printing

For printing a Customer invoice, you need to develop a script/form. You can copy standard SAP script and make the required changes.

You can use Correspondence type SAP19 for Customer invoice. This you can see in OB77 transaction. The menu path for Correspondence in SPRO is as under:

IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Correspondence → Define Correspondence Types

OB78 transaction relevant correspondence type is assigned to program which has variant defined.

FB03 transaction & then F.64 transaction to print.

• Environment → correspondence in FB03 transaction.

Power4Home Review

Homemade Energy - Sat, 2010-08-21 09:55

Power4Home is a book that was authored by John Russel, an electrician and home energy consultant. The product itself is very successful and it has helped many people around the globe build their own solar panels at a very cheap cost. It is understandable that many people will mark it as a huge scam considering how successful the Power4Home System has been. The truth is, those people who are saying that the system is a scam haven’t even tried or even read the book yet. The Power 4 Home Guide WORKS and the Power4Home Scam DOES NOT EXIST. The system is 100% legit.

You just have to place in a lot of effort and time on trying to build your own solar panels. Two weeks of hard work is all you need to generate your own power at home. This means you have to persevere finding the cheap materials that John Russel is recommending you get and being patient in installing the product. If you follow the step-by-step process written in the Power4Home guide, then you will be successful generating homemade energy.

As mentioned earlier, the Power 4 Home Guide is a step-by-step instruction on how you can generate your own solar power at home at a very cheap cost. It is bundled by a collection of videos that will walk you through the process of making and installing your solar panels. John Russel gives you every detail from where to find cheap materials, how to place them up together, how and where to install your solar panels, you name it.

Power4Home System

The Power4Home System is certainly the most comprehensive guide out there that talks about how you can make your own solar panels at home. Once you download the guide, you will be taken immediately to the process. John Russel will start off talking about the materials you need and where to get them at a very cheap price or sometimes even free. You do not have to be the “Handyman” type of guy because the Power 4 Home System is really built for newbies who do not have prior knowledge about solar power generation.

John Russel

John Russel is an electrician and home energy consultant who devoted his ten years of life trying to place up this whole Power4Home System. Like most of us, he was fed up with the rising cost of his power bills. He knew solar panels were the best way to save on electric bills but the main problem was it was so expensive to have them installed.

He did not have enough cash in the bank to have someone install solar panels for him so he chose to do it by his own. Being an electrician, he knew how things work and he was familiar with how solar panels work. After years and years of research and testing, he finally succeeded and made his very own solar panels which is slashing his electric bills by 80% every month!

One time he even had the electric company pay him because he generated more power than he consumed. Now, John is sharing his Power4Home system with us so we could follow his success in generating homemade energy. The John Russel Power4Home System is certainly the one of the best in the market today.

If you are really looking for a comprehensive DIY guide, then certainly look for Power4Home.

DIY Solar Energy Assessment

Homemade Energy - Sat, 2010-08-21 09:06
Do-It-Yourself Home Energy Assessments

You can easily conduct a Do-It-Yourself Home Energy assessment (also known as a home energy audit). With a simple but diligent walk-through, you can spot many problems in any type of house. When assessing your home, keep a checklist of areas you have inspected and problems you found. This list will help you prioritize your energy efficiency upgrades.

Locating Air Leaks

First, make a list of obvious air leaks (drafts). The potential energy savings from reducing drafts in a home may range from 5% to 30% per year, and the home is generally much more comfortable afterward. Check for indoor air leaks, such as gaps along the baseboard or edge of the flooring and at junctures of the walls and ceiling. Check to see if air can flow through these places:

  • Electrical outlets
  • Switch plates
  • Window frames
  • Baseboards
  • Weather stripping around doors
  • Fireplace dampers
  • Attic hatches
  • Wall- or window-mounted air conditioners.

Also look for gaps around pipes and wires, electrical outlets, foundation seals, and mail slots. Check to see if the caulking and weather stripping are applied properly, leaving no gaps or cracks, and are in excellent condition.

See Power4Home Guide Here.

Inspect windows and doors for air leaks. See if you can rattle them, since movement means possible air leaks. If you can see daylight around a door or window frame, then the door or window leaks. You can usually seal these leaks by caulking or weather stripping them. Check the storm windows to see if they fit and are not broken. You may also wish to consider replacing your ancient windows and doors with newer, high-performance ones. If new factory-made doors or windows are too costly, you can install low-cost plastic sheets over the windows.

If you are having difficulty locating leaks, you may want to conduct a basic building pressurization test:

  1. First, close all exterior doors, windows, and fireplace flues.
  2. Turn off all combustion appliances such as gas burning furnaces and water heaters.
  3. Then turn on all exhaust fans (generally located in the kitchen and bathrooms) or use a large window fan to suck the air out of the rooms.

See the Power4Home System

This test increases infiltration through cracks and leaks, making them simpler to detect. You can use incense sticks or your damp hand to locate these leaks. If you use incense sticks, moving air will cause the smoke to waver, and if you use your damp hand, any drafts will feel cool to your hand.

On the outside of your house, inspect all areas where two different building materials meet, including:

  • All exterior corners
  • Where siding and chimneys meet
  • Areas where the foundation and the bottom of exterior brick or siding meet.

You should plug and caulk holes or penetrations for faucets, pipes, electric outlets, and wiring. Look for cracks and holes in the mortar, foundation, and siding, and seal them with the appropriate material. Check the exterior caulking around doors and windows, and see whether exterior storm doors and primary doors seal tightly.

When sealing any home, you must always be aware of the danger of indoor air pollution and combustion appliance “backdrafts.” Backdrafting is when the various combustion appliances and exhaust fans in the home compete for air. An exhaust fan may pull the combustion gases back into the living space. This can obviously make a very perilous and unhealthy situation in the home.

In homes where a fuel is burned (i.e., natural gas, fuel oil, propane, or wood) for heating, be certain the appliance has an adequate air supply. Generally, one square inch of vent opening is required for each 1,000 Btu of appliance input heat. When in doubt, contact your local utility company, energy professional, or ventilation contractor.


Heat loss through the ceiling and walls in your home could be very large if the insulation levels are less than the recommended minimum. When your house was built, the builder likely installed the amount of insulation recommended at that time. Given today’s energy prices (and future prices that will probably be higher), the level of insulation might be inadequate, especially if you have an older home.

If the attic hatch is located above a conditioned space, check to see if it is at least as heavily insulated as the attic, is weather stripped, and closes tightly. In the attic, determine whether openings for items such as pipes, ductwork, and chimneys are sealed. Seal any gaps with an expanding foam caulk or some other permanent sealant.

See the Power4Home Review

While you are inspecting the attic, check to see if there is a vapor barrier under the attic insulation. The vapor barrier might be tarpaper, Kraft paper attached to fiberglass batts, or a plastic sheet. If there does not appear to be a vapor barrier, you might consider painting the interior ceilings with vapor barrier paint. This reduces the amount of water vapor that can pass through the ceiling. Large amounts of moisture can reduce the effectiveness of insulation and promote structural hurt.

Make sure that the attic vents are not blocked by insulation. You also should seal any electrical boxes in the ceiling with flexible caulk (from the living room side or attic side) and cover the entire attic floor with at least the current recommended amount of insulation.

Checking a wall’s insulation level is more hard. Select an exterior wall and turn off the circuit breaker or unscrew the fuse for any outlets in the wall. Be sure to test the outlets to make certain that they are not “hot.” Check the outlet by plugging in a functioning lamp or portable radio. Once you are sure your outlets are not getting any electricity, remove the cover plate from one of the outlets and gently probe into the wall with a thin, long stick or screwdriver. If you encounter a slight resistance, you have some insulation there. You could also make a small hole in a closet, behind a couch, or in some other unobtrusive place to see what, if anything, the wall cavity is filled with. Ideally, the wall cavity should be really filled with some form of insulation material. Unfortunately, this method cannot tell you if the entire wall is insulated, or if the insulation has settled. Only a thermographic inspection can do this.

If your basement is unheated, determine whether there is insulation under the living area flooring. In most areas of the country, an R-value of 25 is the recommended minimum level of insulation. The insulation at the top of the foundation wall and first floor perimeter should have an R-value of 19 or greater. If the basement is heated, the foundation walls should be insulated to at least R-19. Your water heater, hot water pipes, and furnace ducts should all be insulated. For more information, see our insulation section.

Heating/Cooling Equipment

Inspect heating and cooling equipment annually, or as recommended by the manufacturer. If you have a forced-air furnace, check your filters and replace them as needed. Generally, you should change them about once every month or two, especially during periods of high usage. Have a professional check and clean your equipment once a year.

If the unit is more than 15 years ancient, you should consider replacing your system with one of the newer, energy-efficient units. A new unit would greatly reduce your energy consumption, especially if the existing equipment is in poor condition. Check your ductwork for dirt streaks, especially near seams. These indicate air leaks, and they should be sealed with a duct mastic. Insulate any ducts or pipes that travel through unheated spaces. An insulation R-Value of 6 is the recommended minimum.


Energy for lighting accounts for about 10% of your electric bill. Examine the wattage size of the light bulbs in your house. You may have 100-watt (or larger) bulbs where 60 or 75 watts would do. You should also consider compact fluorescent lamps for areas where lights are on for hours at a time. Your electric utility may offer rebates or other incentives for purchasing energy-efficient.

See the Power4Home Review.


Power4Home Review

Homemade Energy - Thu, 2010-08-19 10:52
Power4Home Review

This is a comprehensive Power4Home Review. You may reckon that Power4Home is just another green energy guide. With the number of similar guides out in the market, it is very simple to dismiss this as just another run-of-the-mill imitation of other guides that have come before it. A closer look at Power4Home though would reveal one of the most simple ways of presenting the benefits of solar and wind energy and how you can benefit from it. This is probably one of the most organized and simple-to-know guide on alternative energy sources that has ever been published. No fuss. No confusing diagrams. No highfalutin scientific terminologies If you want a guide on how to make your own solar panels and wind power generators then Power4Home is for you.

Power4Home Benefits
  1. This guide tells you exactly how to easily build your own solar panels and wind power generators for less than $200.
  2. After completing your project, you can expect huge energy bills savings. In fact, electric companies will even be willing to pay you when you are able to produce your own electricity to power your home.
  3. The best benefit of Power4Home is that it allows you to help save the environment by helping to stop global warming through the use of safe green energy such as solar and wind energies.


  1. A huge advantage of this guide over the other green energy guides available is that it includes a section on being a entrepreneur and making money from your making solar panels and wind turbines. This is one area that other guides have failed to point out.
  2. This product come with a 100% full money back guarantee so there really is no risk for you if you will order.
  3. This guide is made by a real electrician in the person of John Russel so you can be sure that you are getting reliable and trust-worthy information about harvesting green energy. Moreover, Russel has spent years of research and development to perfect the system that you will get to know in this guide.
  4. The presentation and organization of information is one of the best among the green energy guides around. You know that plenty of preparation and hard work has been place into making the guide as accessible to the general public as possible.
  5. This is designed so anyone who will buy it can use it an benefit from it straight away.


  • The only disadvantage of the Power4Home System is the relatively poor quality of the videos that are included. If you are looking for brilliant videos about making your own solar panels and wind turbines then you are better off with another product.
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